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Mesoamerican calendar studies as it relates to our modern era of current examination, continually remains to be a subject matter of controversy, which is steeped in a quagmire of information, as well as disinformation that has come down to us through the literary remnants of the Spanish conquest. These literary remnants, which now are to have been finally reinterpreted and promoted by scholars and specialists in the field, are suspect to a specific predilection towards western counting procedures, which may be found to be disabling to aspiring students and newcomers who are interested in the whole account of the subject matter. Along with these newcomers, and aspiring students, who are typically held back with informational uncertainties due to the lack of balanced research and political dissertation on the part of those who have the greatest amount of resources on the subject, there then also comes about a crises in the field, which is generated by an incomplete understanding of the iconographic symbolism's that are used within the calendars numerological script; making it now due for a complete reexamination of the items available through the various forms of the ancient symbolism's. This reexamination is indispensable, if indeed this field of Mesoamerican Calendar Cosmology is to ever evolve from out of its current state of text book rendering, and into the intuitive process of mind expansion for which it is currently useful, and indeed was meant for in the ancient world.
The greatest difficulty in coming to terms with the Mesoamerican Calendar and its modern correlation controversy lies within the principle of a correction procedure that is to be enacted every 52-years to realign the various designations of the Mesoamerican Calendar with the tropical year. It is certain that in the regions of Central Mexico, this was done in a ritual that has come to be known to us as the New Fire Ceremony. To the Nahuatl speaking Aztecs, it was known as the, “Xiuhmolpiliztli,” or the ‘binding of the years.’ Even within the etymology of this Nahuatl term we can hear the descriptions of an act that is bringing together two distinct parts, back into a wholesome conglomerate that is to be sought specifically within the act of ‘binding’.
For this reason, among other pertinent facts that refer to the ceremony, there should be no animosity towards understanding the importance of this procedure, and its purpose for adding a recurring numerical addition of ‘blank white days’ within every 52 years, which lies at the heart of the basis of the Mesoamerican Calendar as being in an alignment with the tropical year. In truth, if there were no additional increment of days to be added there would be no need for this popular time related ritual. Understanding this fact is essential. In the Mexica-Azteca religion, this ceremony traditionally took place in the middle of November, as the Pleiades approached the zenith at midnight. This was in their 20-day feast of "Quecholli," or 'roseate spoonbill', which is the pink bird seen in the photographs above. The nature of this ritual performed every 52-years demands attention, and as well as a new full explanation.
Therefore, because most of the information on the Internet, and as well as that which is to be found throughout libraries, and many scholarly journals are dedicated to understanding the Mesoamerican Calendar in principally only the linear sense, and which is also to be reinforced by the current theory of the Mayan Long Count methodology, we have now arrived to the point in which it is necessary to devote time to a site which explores the practice of the 52-year correctional procedure, but also pays attention with respect to the linear theory as well. Within these pages one should discover the bases of the ‘Counting of the Years’ in Mesoamerica, for not only the so-called Aztec cultures, but Mayan culture as well in the form of a theoretical ‘Mayan Corrected Count’ that was earlier at the bases of the Haab symbolism as it had initially marked the seasons. Only afterwards in an act of cross-referencing, and cross-engineering, from a literal tool bag of numerological factors and mathematical practices was the linear count Slip Cycle finally allowed to take its course; and from there the conceptual beginning points of 4-Ahau, and 3-Kumku, where established to be placed strategically with the sun among certain stars, which was usually to be found within the area of an alignment between the stars Arcturus, and Spica, to begin the 5125.366-wandering year cycle.
Despite sufficient evidence for the linear wandering year Slip Cycle, the concept of the seasonal year is surely just as important to the cultures that used the Mesoamerican Calendar, since a tally of the seasonal year would be vital to agriculture, and the seasonal rituals that assisted the practice. Without this tally there would be no inherent understanding from the past about the course of the year, and its influence on human needs. This would result in the need for a constant instruction, and reassurance from the astronomical elite on what was to be done with regards to planting. Therefore, it is only logical to assume that possibly, there was originally in use two different calendars in Mesoamerica, for two different purposes:
Agriculture (Solar Corrected Count), and Astronomy (Planetary Slip Cycle).
The concept of the seasonal year is as important to the Mesoamerican Calendar as any other in the world (if not more); and this fact is to be demonstrated within the 18-seasonal festivals of the natural 365-day year, found throughout all of Ancient Mexico. What is now required is that the current recognition of the seasonal nature of the 18-festivals that is found within the Aztec cultures, is also to be understood as being prevalent within the 18-Mayan festivals of the year as well, in what is called the Haab, variably meaning “Cycle of Rains.” After this seasonal correlation is perceived, then it can perhaps be seen how the various calendarictic glyphs of both traditions, (Aztec and Mayan), actually draw from a stellar basis for their creative iconographic symbolism's that therefore reenact a celebration for the passage of the night sky, right along with the passage of the seasons, which all the while were meant to advertise the signatures of the gods that can be found in both of the patterns of the linear, and the cyclic time format as a concurrent unity.
This is the attempt of this site with its project, which is designed to bring about a more full and complete realization with regards to the meaning, and functionality of the Mesoamerican Calendar that served all aspects and parts of ancient society. For this reason, we must make an effort to study all aspects and parts of the calendar itself, if we are indeed to garner any intended value for the modern student, researcher, and indeed the scholar as well. For that matter, there are still many unanswered questions that need to be answered for all, which will contribute to a more practical and well balanced study for the future generations to come; so that if indeed other more practical matters must be attended to then at least a good part of the enigma should be resolved. This can only be done with greater contribution and cooperation among peers within the field of Mesoamerican Calendar Studies.
In an effort to find some of the most needed answers, traditional resources on the subject of ancient Mexico have naturally been maintained in this study, in order to discover the lost and neglected meaning of their passages. However, in the case where the traditional resources could not suffice, more recent contributions of certain authors who cover more specialized elements of the calendarictic practice have been consulted – especially in the case of the astrology. For that matter, one should not be surprised that when and where the traditional resources could not suffice, that this authors active imagination, and intuitive intellect have attempted to cover the bases. I’m sure that some will find these insights and personal discoveries that are being offered here for the first time somewhat amusing in some cases. I hope that there should not be too much of an animosity for at least exploring some of these original ideas, since it is true that the deficiency of a reliable network of new information pertaining to the Mesoamerican Cosmologies is what is contributing to the modern conundrum of misinterpreting, and in many cases completely misunderstanding the nature and purpose of this ancient celestial counting mechanism that in and of itself was formally the bases of a kind of cultural astrologic cosmology. For this reason, the bases of the ancient stellar constellations must be explored.
The Spirit of the Calendar and the Birth of Time
In the first chapter, under the first webpage title of “Mesoamerican Calendar,” a highly intuitive journey is taken into the ancient aboriginal mind, to reveal the contents of the once familiar ‘psychological blueprint’ that assisted in the initial construction and rectification of the stellar cosmologies, which eventually have come down to us now in the form that we recognize vaguely as "astrology," but for which western astrology now serves only as a contemporary shadow, and which now lost from its predecessor cosmologies that preceded and rectified the psychic art form originally is now quickly becoming more and more just another enigma of the modern mind. The journey taken in this treaties may reopen the dialog concerning the mental contribution to the bases of existence itself, thus answering to this enigma.
The Structure of the Calendar
Although far from complete, this second treaties on the structure of the Mesoamerican Calendar attempts to give some of the much needed foundation to observing and discovering new cycles within the time counts from the region. Although most effort throughout this site will be dedicated to the learning of the sorely neglected Corrected Count, essential information pertaining to the astrological bases of the basic numerological script is attempted at here.
On the second webpage title of “Mesoamerican Astrology,” there are to be found this authors latest efforts at just that: Mesoamerican Astrology. Though the effort leaves allot to be desired, it nonetheless is an attempt in rectifying the lost art that is to become soon among one of the most valuable of statements in the study of the Mesoamerican Calendar. For that reason, this should be seen in a state of evolution that is slated for a great improvement in the near future. For that matter, the study of the years is to become an asset in understanding the nature of the tonalli-date-sign, although this aspect of the Aztec Year Cycle is not explored here on this page. Rather it is given over to the next page, within a project / manuscript called Painted Jade, which outlines the details of correspondence between the extremely powerful Chinese Year Sign, and the soon to become just as powerful "Aztec Year Sign," which was called the “Xiuhtonalli,” or, (year sign) in the Nahuatl language.
In the year of 1997, a graphic picture or Mandela was created by this author, in order to outline the astrologic bases of correspondence that is to be found between the 12-Chinese Calendar Year Signs, and the less well known 4-archetypes of the Aztec Year Calendar, which are a part of a 52-year cycle when multiplied by the 13-numbers. It had been a long time since the paper drawing had occurred, so therefore an inspiration had come over this author to create something greater for a unique contribution of astrological correlations, which in essence would help point out and reinforce many neglected aspects of the Mesoamerican Calendar as it is usually currently understood.
Videos were created, although these are now subject to some degree of editing, and much more improvement needs to be made with regards to the astrology involved as always, which can be easily converted over from the counterpart Asian year sign archetypes. This project represents an exciting, yet challenging goal to recalibrate the intended meanings of the Aztec Year Sign, while at the same time in over coming the challenges made by those who refuse to see and understand the inherent correlations due to the misconceptions laid before us in the first part of the previous century, which denies any ability of an individual to prove that a correction procedure was ever maintained in ancient Mexico. This author claims to have plenty of proof, as can be demonstrated, and some of it is to be found on the next webpage.
New Fire Ceremony
One of the greatest and most important ceremonies from out of ancient Mexico is that of the New Fire Ceremony. A great deal has been written about the ceremony in the labyrinth of text books that arrive to us from the recent examinations made by authors on the subject. However, as would be the case, and which is in fact observable to all, very little of what is known about the ceremony has ever been spelled too clearly, and is rather treated like a novelty from ancient Mexico; kind of like ‘cosmic entertainment’ for the contemporary mind to read about, just as in the case of modern literary science fiction thrillers that are designed to fill a void. In the case of the New Fire Ceremony however, the purpose of the ceremony was very specific and very real. The legacy is a somewhat distorted version for the ‘ultimate end of the world prediction’ that arrives to us from ancient Mexico in the form of a procrastinated religious superstition that demands the observance of the impending possibility of disaster.
Hard as it may seem to believe, the apprehension was quite real for the people of this period at the end of every 52-year cycle, due to the need to ‘close their current 52-year cycle’ permanently. This meant drawing a division in the fabric of time with a set of what I call “Blank White Intercalary Days,” which were specifically designed to realign the Mesoamerican Calendar Cycles with the tropical year of the seasons. This guaranteed that the eighteen 20-day months of the year, were to then find and retain their places once again in the fabric of the seasons of the natural year after a slippage of 52-years had passed. This idea is verified and guaranteed with the iconographic sets of stellar constellations left to us in the form of the 18-glyphs, which outline the "Eighteen 20-day Metztli," meaning moon, and standing for the idea of a month of 20-days.
Furthermore, the ritualistic acts and ceremonies of the times described the seasonal alignment as well, as is to be seen and read about in Frey Diego Duran’s “The Book of Gods and Rites and the Ancient Calendar.” Also, the importance of the seasonal nature of the New Fire Ceremony itself is verified in the passages of Frey Bernardino Sahagun’s Florentine Codice, which spells out the meaning of the ceremony with the description of the Pleiades at the midnight zenith, which happens in November of our Gregorian calendar. On the Mexica-Azteca Calendar this happened in the 20-day period of Red Spoonbill, which once again is the bird that is to be seen in the pictures above, which represented something of the equivalent of the renewed Phoenix in some respects, as this swan is affiliated with seasonal renewal by way of the rains with its return in the autumn.
Interestingly enough however, as we all know and as was commented on earlier, the details explaining the reasons and why for’s of this ceremony are never quite delivered to us as clearly as they should be, due mostly to the denial and apprehension that is to be contained within the prevailing western psyche. This results in a miserable form of politics in which no one knows the answers, because through training – no one really wants the answer. Therefore, most of us remain slated to a continual evasion of the truth with regards to the literature on this ceremony, even though for in discovering the truth the western psyche will probably no doubt look for an answer that best suits its needs towards a modern resolution for the Mesoamerican Calendar, which is unbroken and linear in nature. With this kind of disposition we get the current conundrum in misunderstanding the ultimate meaning towards the 52-year procedure for the Corrected Count that is found at the time of the New Fire Ceremony.
Because it is true that the Maya had also predicted change at the end of their Long Count Cycles, now the literature pertaining to the ancient "Mesoamerican New Fire Ceremony," has instead been given over to the linear meaning of the current Mayan Baktun rollover period due in 2012. Surely as well, fire can be drilled there at that point, just as fire can always be drilled anywhere and for any reason desired, at any time of the year within any given century. The question is: "Does time stop there at that point?" Within the practice of a Corrected Count, stopping time (or the symbolic counting of it) is at the bases of the theory that reinitiates elemental principals - not simply numerological ones. In the case of the New Fire Ceremony, found in the autumn months and enacted every 52-years, the reason was specifically to realign the calendar to the measurement of the tropical year.
Proof towards the theory would no doubt be satisfying for all. Even more than just proof however, is the incredible fact that this author on the recent date of February 21st 2009, had finally come to realize that there was in fact an extra day that was to be added every 520-years, which is a fact that went on to be proven by this author through an experiment of trying to comprehend the long term counting relationship between the Corrected Count and the Long Count. What was needed were to be 10-extra days added in just over 5,125-years, or 1-day in every 520-year’s. Nine months later after that February 2009 date, archeological evidence was discovered by this author, which points out the number of days to be added within the Corrected Count that almost cannot be refuted. The results of the mathematical experiment are contained in the next chapter on the Mayan Long Count.
It is no surprise, and indeed it is to be expected that most of the audience who gives their time over to reading any of this author’s material will first give themselves over to critiquing my knowledge and information about the Mayan Long Count Cycle. There are indeed some rules to be followed in the study of this unfolding Long Count Cycle of 5125.366-years. The problem however remains that no one seems to know why these rules are in place! So, for all of the formalities that are to be garnered in such a task of understanding this count, this author had instead attempted to understand the Long Count from a corrected perspective, in which the cycle is then imbued with the intercalary dates added within the passage of every 52-years. This resulted in the infrequently advertised, and rarely to be seen year phase for the Great Baktun cycle in current literature, which is to be 5128-years.
Those who inadvertently use this number to describe the cycle have simply stumbled upon it through the general multiplication of a 5,125.366-year time period by the standard definition of the year as being 365.4-days long, instead of the terms of the linear 360 x 5200 equation that amounts to the 1872000-days, which are then divided by 365.2422-days. This 365.4-day division would in turn imply to account somehow for the leap dates in every four years. In truth however, on behalf of redeeming the erroneous numerical theory that would go to imply 5128-years, or (5127.58-years) this author has discovered instead that the actual extended cycle should then come to amount more specifically to a period of 5128.744-years, when there is added the proper amount of intercalary dates in every 520-year cycle, which aligns the 260-day Tzolkin / Tonalpoualli with the tropical year.
The next problem is of course that this is not to be seen as the Great Baktun Cycle of 1872000-days, because that cycle is found within that time, and that time only, which is 5125.336-years. However, following the Corrected Count Theory, of the Long Count Cycle, this author indeed stumbled upon some interesting cycles, and as well as some interestingly diverted and indeed lost facts, which pertain to the rectification of the Long Count Calendar in all of its cosmological applications. One of these facts pertains to the most important aspect of the whole cycle, and which would go forward to describe why the date 4-Ahau was used as the initiation point. Continuing the exploration, more and more diverted facts pertaining to the Haab cycle, and the inherent iconography of those 18-symbols were becoming more apparent through the use of the Corrected Count, which manages to hold the 18-Haab to their initial seasonal and stellar stations; and thus demonstrating them in their principal positions, just as they are to be found at the time of the Spanish Conquest of 1519 CE.
Everything seemed to be going fine for the theory and the newly discovered information extracted from the equation. Admittingly, this author was becoming somewhat weary for the 5125.366-year cycle and its meaning, which is receiving a great deal of controversy currently due to so much information not being able to be fully corroborated via the standard linear interpretation. Some and indeed most, are very enthusiastic about the end date at the winter solstice on December 21st 2012, however, this enthusiasm does not leave much steam to the beginning of the cycle at the time of August 11th 3114 BCE, and exactly what that date could or should mean.
Then one night very recently something changed. Just after midnight on March 1st, 2011 this author looked to the sky to see a blood red Saturn in Virgo, aligned to a bright red star called, Arcturus. For some reason by way of coincidence, the moment of the alignment dictated the then current position of Saturn on 3-1-2011, tangentially with the former position of the sun as found on the date of August 11th 3114 BCE, when the sun was stationed within the constellation of Virgo along with Saturn. But the real and initial realization, which then immediately came about was that this is where Saturn was ‘approximately’ to be found on the date of August 11th 3114 BCE. Indeed for that matter, Saturn is moving closer every day to its initial sidereal position that it once had at the beginning of the Great Baktun Cycle that started with 4-Ahau / 8-Kumku 5125.366-years ago, come the date December 21st, 2012. This could and can only mean one thing…THE 5125.366-YEAR CYCLE IS A SATURN CALIPER.
Now, it is understandable as to how and why the Maya would align the ending of the Baktun Cycle to the winter solstice and the Galactic Center. They understood the many ways that the 60-degrees of space-time could be divided, and then to contain the measurements of the Saturn Caliper against the backdrop of stars and constellations. This author has now found the other side of the coin for the readers, which is to be found within the treaties on the Mayan Count, which will invite further meaning into the August 11th 3114 BCE date.
Therefore, in the tradition of Mesoamerica, and due to the amounting conflict of increasing forms of information found within the articles of personal discoveries by oneself and others, there is no other choice but to regard the basis of the Mesoamerican Calendar script as a whole as dual – meaning that there are two; and perhaps even more than two different counting procedures, (which may also include leap year dates in some obscure cases). But the essential two would outline a Corrected Tropical Year Count, and a linear Slip Cycle that is essentially numerological. Some ideas pertaining to this notion have already been expressed above. Such acceptable conclusions will also pave the way for the intended need to come to terms with other conflicting chronologies, which are currently being used by some to now declare the GMT-584,283 correlation as “dead weight.” In truth, a resolution must be found in as many correlations as possible.
Indeed, the terms of accuracy that are to be offered thru the Bohm correlation of 622,261 for the Dresden Codice, would seem at least to this author to be unchallengeable, considering the fact that very little success has been advertised for the 584,283 correlation with regards to this Dresden Codice and the challenges it presents. Interestingly enough, because the two correlations of the Bohm and the GMT are scripted at 104-years apart, Saturn then opposes itself within the zodiac from one point to another within an equal comparison of Long Count Script Dates between these two correlations of the Bohm and the GMT. One must ask therefore: Why is the 622,261 Bohm correlation, exactly 104-years distant from the GMT of 584,283? Could this be the result of deliberate orchestration for some cosmic astronomic reasoning? Could it be that Saturn is to be found within its stellar home between the constellations of Virgo and Libra for the 584,283, while Saturn’s home is officially registered in the opposite area of Pisces and Aries for the 622,261? Then for the sake of the 4-directions, perhaps we should find another set of correlations set apart by the 52-year cycle that would put Saturn within the area of Sagittarius and Capricorn, and finally another that would put Saturn to end up always in between the stars of Gemini and Cancer. We probably will not find such a precise planetary correlation for the Long Count Dates in the time being, however it would be nice to make such easy sense out of all of these conflicting Mayan Calendar correlations available through research.
With these correlation comparisons being pointed out, it should be no secret why this author favors the Solar Corrected Count as the official Astrological Count, which is to insinuate that the linear count correlations represent more of an astronomical or (numerological) basis of comparison and calculation, therefore granting the possibility for there to be probably more of these linear counts available throughout a historical tally conducted through archeology, if it could ever actually be done completely.
Finally, in the wake of the subtle handling of the 1872000-day cycle, I just want to remind the reader that I do not mean to simply drag the needle across the delicate vinyl record of the 5125.366-year cycle, with the reinforced invention of the 5128.744-year cycle. Rather as I see it, I am simply playing a '45-record at '33-speed. For that matter though, the Long Count Cycle can be seen as a '33-record being played at '45-speed, due to the emphasis on the 360-degrees of space as being the common denominator, and not the equation of 365.2422-actual days. Therefore with this kind of exploration, which follows the nature of actual time with correction procedures, there are many important realizations to come about for corroborating the details of the Mayan Calendar, which will finally help us to come to terms with the cross-engineering of this numerological mechanism that only in reality reflects the cross-engineering of all technology throughout the world entirely, ever since the beginning of what it ever was that was being manufactured. Calendars and cosmologies are not immune to this process - it is in fact the bases of their ancient rectifications.
However, for having said that it should also be included that current modern methods of cross-engineering, and cross-referencing, have often lately come to amount to a predilection and personal slant, resulting in an incomplete reinterpretation that opposes all other evidence; simply for the sake of being novel, original, and unique. This is done to foster a personal sense of accomplishment for the practicing researcher, which in turn would make the material appear more rejuvenated and suitable for modern consumption. All too often, various crowds are then attracted to just such a set of fabricated circumstances, since it tends to reflect their own need to be recognized for a unique perspective and invention, which can somehow resurrect the inadequacies of lost essentials from the past. These reinterpretations also seem to create a safety barrier that is often desired by much of the general public so as to deter the uncertainties found within further individual study.
I would have to insist that this is not the case for the 5128.744-year period, and the mathematical essentials that it produces. One of these essentials again, was to be the realization from this author that there is actually to be a 14th-day that is added at the end of every 520-year period, for a total of “126-days,” within the "Mesoamerican Corrected Count." This discovery was in and of itself, worth the price of admission for exploring such an idea that involved extending the Calendar Cycles over long periods of time. However, in the wake of the search and discover mentality, this author will admit to stretching the Mayan Long Count Script Dates, out along with the extended 5128.744-year cycle. This in turn brings the end of the Baktun Cycle Script of 188.8.131.52.0 out to April 12, 2013.
It is for the sake of experiment worth looking into, since there is the smallest possibility of a chance that perhaps the Toltecs had inherited a Mayan Long Count, and turned it into a Corrected Count, giving us the result found in deLanda’s Relaciones, which includes the Katun dates as well. For those who are beginning to view the GMT as inadequate, and are favoring other correlations for the sake of the Dresden, this idea could almost seem to make some sense. However, it is only being offered for the sake of an examination with the chapter on the Mayan Count, and as well within the chapter on the New Fire Ceremony. The Long Count Script Dates could just as readily be removed from the 5128.744-year equation, allowing still for all of the other forms of the new iconographic information to retain their prevalence in order for new insights and realizations of this ancient calendars rectification to take place within the contemporary mind. For that matter, it will at times appear that I am trying to describe two different things at once, and while this may be an inconvenience to the mind, we must nonetheless remember that in ancient Mesoamerica there were indeed allot of things going on at once in terms of time keeping practices collectively; throughout the land and throughout the ages.
So now, after recently finding some available meaning for the August 11th 3114 BCE date, and seeing the need to reinforce some of the surrounding enthusiasm for the sun at the center of the galaxy found on the end date of December 21st 2012, it would only seem reasonable to view the two separate counting procedures of the Corrected Count, and the GMT as coming to an orchestrated intersection for a brief period of 52-years at the time of the conquest. However, for giving in and conceding to such an idea, I must also for the sake of a scientifically tempered viewpoint, admit for all that the GMT does not really have to be in synchronization with the Tenochtitlan date of “1-Serpent,” on August 13th 1521 CE. According to deLanda, that date for the Maya was “2-Cimi,” and that just may be the truth, deLanda did not necessarily have to be wrong. His records very well may be correct after all, and the only difference in admitting to this would be to designate the linear counts as principally being an astronomic (non-seasonal) count, (or calculator) which in effect can be started almost anywhere according to the plan of the initiators, of the particular astronomic project at hand. This may have historically included avenging a particular competitor’s Long Count for the matter of rectifying a new cultural territory.
Therefore, to this author the question really is not: What is this Corrected Count (?), since that answer is simple and self-explanatory. It is a tropical year, and agricultural /astrological alignment. Indeed, instead the question for this author is what are these linear counts, if they are not simply for the purpose of astronomical precision? The answer to this question needs to be sought more thoroughly over the course of the next years within the practice of Mesoamerican Calendar Studies. I hope these small contributions offered here at this site, which are still now only in the making will help to clarify the connection of the Mesoamerican Calendar to actual time and the function of the seasons of the year, while promising a modern consideration for a dual apprenticeship for a calendarictic recitation to be found in most all ancient Mesoamerican communities.
All original information Copyright. 2011 Camden M. Andersen / Tonal Inquiry Mesoamerican Experiences